To what extent was religion a divisive force between early modern European states and the Ottoman Empire?
Introduction Across the period of 1453-1774, 102 of these years were conflict ridden, implying that there were strong divisive forces between the Ottoman Empire and the European states. Given the early modern Ottoman Empire was for the most part Muslim and conversely the European States widely Christian, religion could be considered a divisive factor inContinue reading “To what extent was religion a divisive force between early modern European states and the Ottoman Empire?”
“All known religious beliefs, whether simple or complex, present one common characteristic: they presuppose a classification of all the things, real and ideal, of which men think, into two classes or opposed groups, generally designated by two distinct terms which are translated well enough by the words ‘profane’ and ‘sacred’. This division of the worldContinue reading “Emile Durkheim, The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life (1915)”
Why were Jews the victims of pogroms in late nineteenth and early twentieth century imperial Russia?
Introduction Historians define the pogroms as physical acts of violence directed against the Jews. The Oxford English Dictionary describes them as being an ‘organized massacre’, however as they took many forms and involved different groups of attackers, I disagree with this definition and believe them to instead be spontaneous. Pogroms can be seen as expressionsContinue reading “Why were Jews the victims of pogroms in late nineteenth and early twentieth century imperial Russia?”